Monday, October 04, 2004

10 2

Roloff – 10 2

Persuasion - How do we alter another person’s behavior?

Today, we look at experiences…if someone has been persuaded, what does it mean to them?

Change in attitudes or behaviors – when we think of an attitude, we think of it as an evaluation…strong/weak, good/bad…beliefs are discussed, what we believe to be factual/observable characteristics, statement of reality for an individual…even if one believes that cigarettes are bad, he or she could have a bad attitude about quitting. Some attitudes may be genetic…identical twins/fraternal twins/siblings raised apart were studied, correlation between twins’ attitudes raised apart…temperament is inherent.
- Values are ideals...Most Americans value the freedom of choice, but we have a commitment to egalitarianism…these can conflict. (Incest Value) Usually stable.
- Opinions – the expression of attitude. These are supposed to reflect what you think…contextual differences change the behavior regardless the stated opinion. (Women turning down a date…does she give a reason? Women give a reason that does not reflect their feelings about the suitor…usual they’re busy) Usually unstable.
Persuasion is Message-Driven – Heart attack victims didn’t change their behavior until after the first heart attack…seat belts are worn after accidents. “Seeing is believing”

The Message was Intentionally Sent – Mike thinks that is limited, acts sometimes have “incidental effects”…a downsizing makes sends a message.

Persuaded by Own Free Will – difference between coercion and persuasion, coercion is forced, persuasion is not…Mike believes that there is an element of coercion in persuasion. Authority figures are attributed more coercive elements…there is a feeling of psychological threat, lack of choice or alternative, and the change was not desired. Coercion will generate a greater degree of compliance than classic persuasion.

3 Elements of Attitude – Cognitive, Affective, Behavior

Cognitive – observation, consequences of behavior
Affective – how one feels about something – Mike thinks that too little time spent on feelings in study of persuasion…syringes are used to arouse study subjects
Behavior – Predispositions, what we’d like to do, a natural compulsion - approach/avoid

Some attitudes are shaped more by one element than the others – Experientially formed attitudes are driven by affective element…. vicariously formed attitudes are formed by cognitive element. Giving Blood has an affective weighting – those who do and those who don’t have an affective motivation.

People don’t like it when they’re persuaded by one element and are motivated by another.

Functional element of Attitude – What reasons are attitudes held?

Kelman – 3 types of attitude change:

1) Compliance – threats and inducements – Needs a “means control communicator”, someone who has the power to deliver the threat or inducement - limit choice, or feeling of having choice…reactions are disruption, then minimalization, then acceptance – behavioral clarity…people need to know what to do – Surveillance is necessary, so people believe they can be caught for non-compliance.
2) Identification – Social impact of the attitude…attitude enables one to socialize – Attractiveness of the source…physical attractiveness, aspiration of relationship, like me – Salient Relationship with the communicator is necessary…advertising and celebrities…”Role requirements”…basking in reflected glory, we feel better about ourselves when we can associate with someone who is admired.
3) Internalization – Accept something because it is a values fit – Credibility, trustworthiness – The most lasting form of persuasion, because values are stable.

In a study that compared Internalization and Identification, message came from an attractive source and a credible source, no reasons given. Crossed with how many arguments the speaker gave – when 3 arguments were given. Expert was believed when 3 arguments given…the attractive source was credible regardless of arguments given…arguments were disregarded, and couldn’t be recalled by subjects. Kelman would argue that identification would only work in the short-run.
Organizational Examples: Compliance, Identification, Internalization


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